The GII 2012 is calculated as the average of two sub-indices and the Innovation Efficiency Index is the ratio of the two sub-indices, the Innovation Input Sub-Index gauges elements of the national economy which embodies innovative activities grouped in five pillars: (1) Institutions, (2) Human capital and research, (3) Infrastructure, (4) Market sophistication, and (5) Business sophistication. The Innovation Output Sub-Index captures actual evidence of innovation results, divided in two pillars: (6) Knowledge and technology outputs and (7) Creative outputs.
This year the GII innovates in two ways: First, for the first time, the GII includes a detailed analysis of the underlying factors influencing year-on-year changes in rankings. Second, the strengths/weaknesses of each economy are identified in the country profiles.
Moreover, while the GII report is a year over year performance assessment, it seeks to update/improve the way innovation is measured. For example, this year the Infrastructure pillar was reorganized to single out ecological sustainability in a new sub-pillar. In addition, online creativity was added to the ranking, including data on generic and country-code top level Internet domains, and also drawing on data from Wikipedia and YouTube.
The Report includes ten analytical chapters contributed by knowledge partners, Advisory Board members, and Google (by special invitation) to expose recent global innovation trends that can hardly be captured by traditional metrics. Four chapters are case studies on the Gulf Cooperation Council, Saudi Arabia, India, and the Russian Federation.
Released jointly by WIPO, INSEAD and its Global Innovation Index 2012 edition Knowledge Partners, Alcatel-Lucent, Booz & Company, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII).
This is the fifth year the GII has been published, and the first in which INSEAD and WIPO are co-publishers. The Global Innovation Index (GII) project was launched by INSEAD in 2007 with the goal of determining how to find metrics and approaches to better capture the richness of innovation in society and go beyond such traditional measures of innovation as the number of research articles and the level of research and development (R&D) expenditures.